S1-S4

Cardiac auscultation is an art that cardiologists only rarely have to care about, having an echo ready at every corner. For us lowliers, it remains perplexing and difficult to learn. But you should try, as it is quite rewarding and also relevant for patient care (think of endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and so forth).

  • We talk about the basic use of the stethoscope, how much it should cost and where you can put it (both on you and on the patient).
  • Also where and how S1 and S2 sound like.
  • Finally, S3 as a sign of distress – it’s differential.
  • S4 as a more prevalent and probably less important sign.